Mechanical - HVAC Engineering Services

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Send us the architectural floor plans.


Step 2

Our experts will analyze the documents uploaded by you to design mechanical - HVAC plans

Step 3

We send you an optimized mechanical - HVAC plans within 2 Weeks per floor.

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Mechanical Engineering Services

  • Get your design done in 2 weeks per floor
  • Meet the local mechanical code and ASHRAE standards.
  • Calculate the exact HVAC equipment sizes you need.
  • Save by reducing the total length of ducts and piping.
  • Improve energy efficiency with smart building controls.
  • Optimize your mechanical - HVAC design and avoid clashes.

Mechanical - HVAC Engineering Services

Design According To Codes

Design your mechanical installations according to ASHRAE standards and local building codes.

Improve Performance

Avoid oversized HVAC equipment, reduce installation costs and improve building performance.

Reduce Bills

Reduce electricity and gas bills with an energy efficient mechanical - HVAC design for your building.

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Mechanical - HVAC Engineering Services


Mechanical - HVAC systems have many important roles in buildings, and indoor spaces would quickly become uninhabitable without them. Space heating, air conditioning, ventilation, tap water, wastewater drainage, elevators and fire protection are all possible thanks to mechanical - HVAC engineering.

However, mechanical - HVAC systems are also some of the most expensive installations in modern buildings. They also use bulky equipment, taking up more space than electrical and communication systems. To optimize the space requirements and costs of mechanical equipment, a professional design from a MEP engineering firm is recommended.

Among mechanical installations, HVAC systems are characterized by their high energy consumption. In many residential and commercial buildings, HVAC represents more than 50% of total energy consumption. By implementing energy efficiency measures during the design and construction stages, you can greatly reduce the operating cost of HVAC systems in the long run.

HVAC systems are characterized by their variety, and there may be several viable options for your building. Mechanical - HVAC engineers can help you choose the best possible system, improving your indoor air quality and energy efficiency.

Most ventilation and air conditioning systems run with electricity, but a wider variety of energy sources is used for heating. Some heating systems run only with electricity, but many use fuels like natural gas, heating oil and propane. There are also space heating systems that run with biodiesel or biogas, which are obtained by processing organic waste.

Mechanical - HVAC Equipment: Calculating the Right Capacity

In mechanical - HVAC design, a very important requirement is calculating the right equipment capacity. Undersized equipment will perform poorly, but oversized equipment is a waste of space and capital. In some cases, it may be possible to use smaller equipment with energy efficiency measures.

  • For example, if the building insulation has a high R-value, the heating and cooling equipment can be sized smaller.
  • Effective insulation reduces heat loss during winter and heat gain during summer, allowing a smaller HVAC capacity.

Calculating mechanical loads with “rules of thumb” may seem like a simple solution, but this normally leads to oversized installations. The equipment is more expensive than necessary, it consumes more energy, and maintenance costs are also higher. A professional design uses more complex calculations, but the rewards are significant: enhanced performance, cost reductions and energy efficiency.

Another advantage of working with professional mechanical - HVAC engineers is a quicker project approval with the local building department.

Designs that follow “rules of thumb” are often rejected several times, delaying the construction stage. On the other hand, a professional design gets approved quickly, and construction can also start earlier

  • ASHRAE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, is the US industry authority on HVAC design. ASHRAE standards are used by state governments as reference for mechanical codes, and they are also used internationally.
  • Mechanical codes also reference standards from organizations like ACCA (Air Conditioning Contractors of America), ARI (Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute) and SMACNA (Sheet Metal & Air Conditioning Contractors National Association).
  • All standards referenced by building codes are legally required in buildings, and the mechanical - HVAC engineers in charge of design must be well familiarized with them.

Since mechanical - HVAC systems have a high energy consumption, investing in energy efficiency measures is strongly recommended. The price of some equipment and components may increase, but the long-term savings during the building service life are many times higher.

Selecting the Best HVAC Equipment for Your Building


In construction projects, most of the mechanical - HVAC design process focuses on HVAC installations. These systems have a very important role in buildings, since they keep a suitable indoor temperature while providing a fresh air supply. Indoor air quality is also determined in great part by HVAC systems, since they help control relative humidity and air pollution levels.

HVAC systems are characterized by their variety, and there may be several options for a specific project. There are tradeoffs involved, like in any design decision, but a qualified engineering firm can identify the equipment that works best in your building.

Mechanical - HVAC Design: Space Heating Systems

Heating systems can be designed to operate with fuel combustion or electricity. There are several options in both cases, each with advantages and disadvantages.

Combustion-based heating systems normally use furnaces or boilers. A furnace heats the air directly, while a boiler heats water first as an intermediate fluid. Steam boilers heat water until it evaporates, and the steam is then sent to radiators to heat indoor air. On the other hand, hot water boilers only increase the water temperature without evaporating it, and fan coils are used instead of radiators to heat indoor air.

  • The available fuels for combustion heating include natural gas, propane, heating oil, biogas and biodiesel.
  • Coal and wood have also been used historically for space heating. However, many governments have banned these fuels because they are highly polluting.
  • Heavy heating oils are also being phased out in many places, including New York City.

Among all the fuels available for space heating, only natural gas is delivered as a utility service. All other fuels must be delivered by truck to the building and stored locally. This makes natural gas the most reliable option during emergencies like extreme weather, since delivering other fuels may not be possible.

Electric heating systems normally use resistance heaters or heat pumps. A resistance heater applies voltage directly to a heating element, and air is circulated to increase its temperature. On the other hand, a heat pump uses a refrigeration cycle like an air conditioner, but operates in reverse to produce heating instead of cooling. Actually, many heat pumps can be reversed during summer, becoming air conditioners.

    • Heat pumps are much more efficient than resistance heaters, since they need less electricity to meet a specified heating load.
    • A resistance heater must consume one kilowatt-hour of electricity for every kWh of heat produced. On the other hand, most heat pumps can deliver between 2 and 4 kWh of heat for every kWh of electricity consumed.
    • Ground-source heat pumps can produce over 6 kWh of heat per kWh of electricity consumed. They are also the most expensive, but they are easier to install in new constructions - they use buried pipes that are more difficult to install in existing buildings.

Experienced HVAC engineers can select the optimal heating equipment for your building, depending on its features and requirements. The local availability of fuels is also an important factor to consider.

If you plan to avoid fossil fuels completely, heat pumps are strongly recommended to reduce your electricity bills. You can use unitary heat pumps for different areas of your building, or a central unit to serve multiple areas.


Mechanical - HVAC Design: Air Conditioning Systems

Unlike space heating systems, which use many energy sources, most air conditioning systems are designed to run with electricity. However, there are also various types of equipment available.

Window air conditioners and packaged terminal air conditioners (PTAC) are similar, since both have all the required components in a unit that goes through the wall. However, these air conditioners create an opening in your building envelope, which reduces the effectiveness of insulation. They are typically the most affordable AC units, but also the least efficient - expect high electricity bills during summer if your building uses window ACs or PTACs.

Split type air conditioners have separate housings for their condenser and evaporator, as their name implies. The condenser is outdoors, the evaporator is indoors, and both units are connected with an insulated refrigerant line. Since there is no gap in your window envelope, split air conditioners are much more efficient than window ACs and PTACs.

Packaged rooftop units or RTUs use air handlers connected to duct systems, and they are commonly used in low-rise commercial buildings. A packaged unit can use a heat pump to offer both heating and cooling, or an AC unit combined with a resistance or combustion heater.

Chiller plants are normally used in large commercial and industrial facilities. Instead of cooling the air directly, chillers cool water that is then pumped through the building. The chilled water reaches fan coils, where the cooling effect is delivered to indoor air. Chilled water piping is used when vertical distances are involved, since blowing cold air upwards is unfeasible and a waste of energy.

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Heat Pumps and Variable Refrigerant Flow: Heating and Cooling with the Same Equipment


Heat pumps are a special case, since they can provide either heating and cooling, depending on the season. This means you can use a single piece of equipment instead of a separate air conditioner and space heater. Variable refrigerant flow or VRF systems use the basic principle of a heat pump, but they can adjust refrigerant flow depending on heating and cooling loads. Many VRF systems can provide simultaneous heating and cooling for different building areas. For example, this is useful if a commercial office area needs space heating, while a data center with many servers needs air conditioning.

Many heat pumps and VRF systems are equipped with a backup gas heater or resistance heater, since their performance drops in extremely cold days. However, most of the time they are a cost-effective option to provide both heating and cooling with only electricity. High-efficiency heat pumps can match the most efficient chillers and split units in cooling mode, while having heating costs similar to those of natural gas.

Smart Controls for Mechanical - HVAC Systems

The operating cost of mechanical - HVAC systems can be reduced with energy efficient equipment. However, better results are possible when efficiency is combined with automation. Smart thermostats and building automation systems (BAS) can adjust temperature setpoints depending on building needs, saving energy. According to the US Department of Energy, HVAC costs decrease by up to 10% if the thermostat is set back 7-10°F, for 8 hours per day.

Electric motors consume plenty of energy, and they are used in many mechanical - HVAC systems: air handlers, water pumps, chiller compressors, elevators, etc. However, the energy consumption of motors can be reduced drastically with two measures:

  • Using high-efficiency motors such as NEMA Premium, or IE3 and IE4 efficiency classes if you are working with IEC international standards.
  • Adding variable frequency drives (VFD) to motors with a variable workload. Reducing speed is much more efficient than using a motor intermittently under reduced load.

HVAC engineers recommend NEMA Premium motors and VFDs for air handlers, and also for pumps and cooling towers if they are present. Chiller compressors can also become more efficient with variable speed, but modern units have the feature included already, and they don’t need an external speed control.

Optimizing Your Mechanical - HVAC Layout with BIM


Mechanical installations use many types of equipment, and also fluid distribution systems like air ducts, hydronic piping and refrigerant lines. Packaged rooftop units and furnaces control the air temperature directly, using air handlers and ductwork to distribute it indoors. On the other hand, boilers and chillers rely on hydronic piping, to deliver heating or cooling through fan coils. Finally, split-type and VRF systems use direct refrigerant lines between outdoor and indoor units.

All these components can have a complex layout, especially in large buildings. There are two main design challenges when specifying a mechanical layout:

  • Preventing clashes between components, such as conflicting locations and insufficient clearances between equipment.
  • Optimizing the total length of ductwork, hydronic piping and refrigerant lines. Consider that each extra foot adds cost to the project.

Building Information Modeling (BIM) is a very powerful tool for mechanical - HVAC design, since it simplifies clash detection and cost optimization. BIM also improves the quality of information provided to contractors and tradesmen, and it remains useful for operation and maintenance when a project is completed.

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